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Written by Drew Edwards Jesse Farrell Russell Hillman Matt Morrison HIDE Art by Adam Cahoon Matthew Callahan Keith Chan April Guadiana Waen Manikan More Joey Muerto David Olivarez Dan Price Noodles Queen Evan Quiring Kevin Richardson Nicola Scott John Sowder HIDE Pencils Sergio Calvet Kaan Erdrogan John Gholson Paulo J Hernandez Andrea Montano More Evan Quiring John Sowder Jason Wilson Max Young HIDE Inks John Gholson HIDE Colored by Dan Conner John Gholson April Guadiana Kat Horton Annette Kwok More Kitty Pierce HIDE Cover by Nicola Scott HIDE Lettered by April Guadiana Matt Live HIDE Edited by Russell Hillman HIDE Halloween Man Specials.
Halloween Man: Hallowtide. Lucy Chaplin: Science Starlet. Elder House. In the late s and early s, theme parks entered the business seriously.
Six Flags Fright Fest began in and Universal Studios Florida began Halloween Horror Nights in Knott's Scary Farm experienced a surge in attendance in the s as a result of America's obsession with Halloween as a cultural event.
Theme parks have played a major role in globalizing the holiday. Universal Studios Singapore and Universal Studios Japan both participate, while Disney now mounts Mickey's Not-So-Scary Halloween Party events at its parks in Paris, Hong Kong and Tokyo, as well as in the United States.
On All Hallows' Eve, many Western Christian denominations encourage abstinence from meat , giving rise to a variety of vegetarian foods associated with this day.
Because in the Northern Hemisphere Halloween comes in the wake of the yearly apple harvest, candy apples known as toffee apples outside North America , caramel apples or taffy apples are common Halloween treats made by rolling whole apples in a sticky sugar syrup, sometimes followed by rolling them in nuts.
At one time, candy apples were commonly given to trick-or-treating children, but the practice rapidly waned in the wake of widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples in the United States.
Nonetheless, many parents assumed that such heinous practices were rampant because of the mass media. At the peak of the hysteria, some hospitals offered free X-rays of children's Halloween hauls in order to find evidence of tampering.
Virtually all of the few known candy poisoning incidents involved parents who poisoned their own children's candy. This is similar to the tradition of king cake at the festival of Epiphany.
On Hallowe'en All Hallows' Eve , in Poland , believers were once taught to pray out loud as they walk through the forests in order that the souls of the dead might find comfort; in Spain, Christian priests in tiny villages toll their church bells in order to remind their congregants to remember the dead on All Hallows' Eve.
The Christian Church traditionally observed Hallowe'en through a vigil. Worshippers prepared themselves for feasting on the following All Saints' Day with prayers and fasting.
Today, Christian attitudes towards Halloween are diverse. In the Anglican Church , some dioceses have chosen to emphasize the Christian traditions associated with All Hallow's Eve.
O LORD our God, increase, we pray thee, and multiply upon us the gifts of thy grace: that we, who do prevent the glorious festival of all thy Saints, may of thee be enabled joyfully to follow them in all virtuous and godly living.
Through Jesus Christ, Our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end.
Other Protestant Christians also celebrate All Hallows' Eve as Reformation Day , a day to remember the Protestant Reformation , alongside All Hallow's Eve or independently from it.
One organization, the American Tract Society , stated that around 3 million gospel tracts are ordered from them alone for Hallowe'en celebrations.
If it is just a game, there is no harm in that. To these Christians, Halloween holds no threat to the spiritual lives of children: being taught about death and mortality, and the ways of the Celtic ancestors actually being a valuable life lesson and a part of many of their parishioners' heritage.
In the Roman Catholic Church , Halloween's Christian connection is acknowledged, and Halloween celebrations are common in many Catholic parochial schools in the United States.
According to Alfred J. Kolatch in the Second Jewish Book of Why , in Judaism , Halloween is not permitted by Jewish Halakha because it violates Leviticus 18 :3, which forbids Jews from partaking in gentile customs.
Many Jews observe Yizkor communally four times a year, which is vaguely similar to the observance of Allhallowtide in Christianity, in the sense that prayers are said for both "martyrs and for one's own family".
Sheikh Idris Palmer, author of A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam , has ruled that Muslims should not participate in Halloween, stating that "participation in Halloween is worse than participation in Christmas, Easter, Hindus remember the dead during the festival of Pitru Paksha , during which Hindus pay homage to and perform a ceremony "to keep the souls of their ancestors at rest".
It is celebrated in the Hindu month of Bhadrapada , usually in mid-September. There is no consistent rule or view on Halloween amongst those who describe themselves as Neopagans or Wiccans.
Some Neopagans do not observe Halloween, but instead observe Samhain on 1 November,  some neopagans do enjoy Halloween festivities, stating that one can observe both "the solemnity of Samhain in addition to the fun of Halloween".
Some neopagans are opposed to the celebration of Hallowe'en, stating that it "trivializes Samhain",  and "avoid Halloween, because of the interruptions from trick or treaters".
Starting at sundown, Wiccans celebrate a holiday known as Samhain. Samhain actually comes from old Celtic traditions and is not exclusive to Neopagan religions like Wicca.
While the traditions of this holiday originate in Celtic countries, modern day Wiccans don't try to historically replicate Samhain celebrations.
Some traditional Samhain rituals are still practised, but at its core, the period is treated as a time to celebrate darkness and the dead — a possible reason why Samhain can be confused with Halloween celebrations.
The traditions and importance of Halloween vary greatly among countries that observe it. In Scotland and Ireland, traditional Halloween customs include children dressing up in costume going "guising", holding parties, while other practices in Ireland include lighting bonfires, and having firework displays.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see All Hallows' Eve disambiguation and Halloween disambiguation.
Holiday celebrated on 31 October. A jack-o'-lantern , one of the symbols of Halloween. Hallowe'en All Hallowe'en All Hallows' Eve All Saints' Eve.
On All Hallows' Eve, Christians in some parts of the world visit cemeteries to pray and place flowers and candles on the graves of their loved ones.
Main article: Trick-or-treating. Main article: Halloween costume. Main article: Haunted attraction simulated. Play media. Main article: Geography of Halloween.
Christianity portal Holidays portal. Campfire story Devil's Night Dziady Ghost Festival Kekri List of fiction works about Halloween List of films set around Halloween List of Halloween television specials Martinisingen Neewollah St.
John's Eve Walpurgis Night Will-o'-the-wisp English festivals. British Broadcasting Corporation BBC. Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 1 November It is widely believed that many Hallowe'en traditions have evolved from an ancient Celtic festival called Samhain which was Christianised by the early Church All Hallows' Eve falls on 31st October each year, and is the day before All Hallows' Day, also known as All Saints' Day in the Christian calendar.
The Church traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows' Eve when worshippers would prepare themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the feast day itself.
The name derives from the Old English 'hallowed' meaning holy or sanctified and is now usually contracted to the more familiar word Hallowe'en.
However, there are supporters of the view that Hallowe'en, as the eve of All Saints' Day, originated entirely independently of Samhain The Book of Occasional Services Church Publishing, Inc.
This service may be used on the evening of October 31, known as All Hallows' Eve. Suitable festivities and entertainments may take place before or after this service, and a visit may be made to a cemetery or burial place.
Kitch The Anglican Family Prayer Book. Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 31 October All Hallow's Eve, which later became known as Halloween, is celebrated on the night before All Saints' Day, November 1.
Use this simple prayer service in conjunction with Halloween festivities to mark the Christian roots of this festival.
Paulist Press. Archived from the original on 31 October Rather than compete, liturgy planners would do well to consider ways of including children in the celebration of these vigil Masses.
For example, children might be encouraged to wear Halloween costumes representing their patron saint or their favorite saint, clearly adding a new level of meaning to the Halloween celebrations and the celebration of All Saints' Day.
A History of the Scottish People from the Earliest Times: From the Union of the kingdoms, , to the present time. Of the stated rustic festivals peculiar to Scotland the most important was Hallowe'en, a contraction for All-hallow Evening, or the evening of All-Saints Day, the annual return of which was a season for joy and festivity.
Johnson Reprint. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Baker Academic. Halloween All Hallows Eve. The name given to October 31, the eve of the Christian festival of All Saints Day November 1.
Northeast Dairy Cooperative Federation. Originally celebrated as the night before All Saints' Day, Christians chose November first to honor their many saints.
The night before was called All Saints' Eve or hallowed eve meaning holy evening. National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty.
Archived from the original on 6 October Hallowtide covers the three days — 31 October All-Hallows Eve or Hallowe'en , 1 November All Saints and 2 November All Souls.
The Stag. University of Surrey. Archived from the original PDF on 19 November Halloween or Hallowe'en, is the yearly celebration on October 31st that signifies the first day of Allhallowtide, being the time to remember the dead, including martyrs, saints and all faithful departed Christians.
Don't Know Much About Mythology: Everything You Need to Know About the Greatest Stories in Human History but Never Learned. Harper Collins.
Women's History in Global Perspective. University of Illinois Press. Retrieved 14 December The pre-Christian observance obviously influenced the Christian celebration of All Hallows' Eve, just as the Taoist festival affected the newer Buddhist Ullambana festival.
Although the Christian version of All Saints' and All Souls' Days came to emphasize prayers for the dead, visits to graves, and the role of the living assuring the safe passage to heaven of their departed loved ones, older notions never disappeared.
Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. Halloween and the Day of the Dead share a common origin in the Christian commemoration of the dead on All Saints' and All Souls' Day.
But both are thought to embody strong pre-Christian beliefs. In the case of Halloween, the Celtic celebration of Samhain is critical to its pagan legacy, a claim that has been foregrounded in recent years by both new-age enthusiasts and the evangelical Right.
The feasts of Hallowe'en, or All Hallows Eve and the devotions to the dead on All Saints' and All Souls' Day are both mixtures of old Celtic, Druid and other pagan customs intertwined with Christian practice.
Halloween, also called All Hallows' Eve, holy or hallowed evening observed on October 31, the eve of All Saints' Day. The Irish pre-Christian observances influenced the Christian festival of All Hallows' Eve, celebrated on the same date.
The Making of the English Village: A Study in Historical Geography. Time out of time', when the barriers between this world and the next were down, the dead returned from the grave, and gods and strangers from the underworld walked abroad was a twice- yearly reality, on dates Christianised as All Hallows' Eve and All Hallows' Day.
Treat or Trick? Halloween in a Globalising World. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Hutton , identifies Rhys as a key figure who, along with another Oxbridge academic, James Frazer, romanticised the notion of Samhain and exaggerated its influence on Halloween.
Hutton argues that Rhys had no substantiated documentary evidence for claiming that Halloween was the Celtic new year, but inferred it from contemporary folklore in Wales and Ireland.
Moreover, he argues that Rhys: "thought that [he] was vindicated when he paid a subsequent visit to the Isle of Man and found its people sometimes called 31 October New Year's Night Hog-unnaa and practised customs which were usually associated with 31 December.
In fact the flimsy nature of all this evidence ought to have been apparent from the start. The divinatory and purificatory rituals on 31 October could be explained by a connection to the most eerie of Christian feasts All Saints or by the fact that they ushered in the most dreaded of seasons.
The many "Hog-unnaa" customs were also widely practised on the conventional New Year's Eve, and Rhys was uncomfortably aware that they might simply have been transferred, in recent years, from then Hallowe'en, to increase merriment and fundraising on the latter.
He got round this problem by asserting that in his opinion based upon no evidence at all the transfer had been the other way round.
Hutton points out that Rhy's unsubstantiated notions were further popularised by Frazer who used them to support an idea of his own, that Samhain, as well as being the origin of Halloween, had also been a pagan Celtic feast of the dead—a notion used to account for the element of ghosts, witches and other unworldly spirits commonly featured within Halloween.
Halloween's preoccupation with the netherworld and with the supernatural owes more to the Christian festival of All Saints or All Souls, rather than vice versa.
Halloween is more Christian than Pagan". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 October So what does this all mean? It means that when we celebrate Halloween, we are definitely participating in a tradition with deep historical roots.
Salzburger Nachrichten. Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 11 August Die Kelten haben gar nichts mit Halloween zu tun", entkräftet Stefan Moser, Direktor des Keltenmuseums Hallein, einen weit verbreiteten Mythos.
Moser sieht die Ursprünge von Halloween insgesamt in einem christlichen Brauch, nicht in einem keltischen. Hörandner, Editha Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo in German.
LIT Verlag Münster. Abgesehen von Irrtümern wie die Herleitung des Fests in ungebrochener Tradition "seit Jahren" ist eine mangelnde vertrautheit mit der heimischen Folklore festzustellen.
Allerheiligen war lange vor der Halloween invasion ein wichtiger Brauchtermin und ist das ncoh heute. So wie viele heimische Bräuche generell als fruchtbarkeitsbringend und dämonenaustreibend interpretiert werden, was trottz aller Aufklärungsarbeit nicht auszurotten ist, begegnet uns Halloween als Aber es wird nicht als solches inszeniert.
Döring, Dr. Volkskundler Alois Ist Halloween schon wieder out? Westdeutscher Rundfunk. Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 12 November Alois Döring ist wissenschaftlicher Referent für Volkskunde beim LVR-Institut für Landeskunde und Regionalgeschichte Bonn.
Er schrieb zahlreiche Bücher über Bräuche im Rheinland, darunter das Nachschlagewerk "Rheinische Bräuche durch das Jahr". Darin widerspricht Döring der These, Halloween sei ursprünglich ein keltisch-heidnisches Totenfest.
Vielmehr stamme Halloween von den britischen Inseln, der Begriff leite sich ab von "All Hallows eve", Abend vor Allerheiligen. Irische Einwanderer hätten das Fest nach Amerika gebracht, so Döring, von wo aus es als "amerikanischer" Brauch nach Europa zurückkehrte.
British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 October Food, Feasts, and Faith: An Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions.
Teens in Finland. Most funerals are Lutheran, and nearly 98 percent of all funerals take place in a church.
It is customary to take pictures of funerals or even videotape them. To Finns, death is a part of the cycle of life, and a funeral is another special occasion worth remembering.
In fact, during All Hallow's Eve and Christmas Eve, cemeteries are known as valomeri , or seas of light. Finns visit cemeteries and light candles in remembrance of the deceased.
Duke University. Archived from the original PDF on 5 October Retrieved 31 May About All Hallows Eve: Tonight is the eve of All Saints Day, the festival in the Church that recalls the faith and witness of the men and women who have come before us.
The service celebrates our continuing communion with them, and memorializes the recently deceased. The early church followed the Jewish custom that a new day began at sundown; thus, feasts and festivals in the church were observed beginning the night before.
National Republic. Among the European nations the beautiful custom of lighting candles for the dead was always a part of the "All Hallow's Eve" festival.
Companion to the Calendar. Liturgy Training Publications. In most of Europe, Halloween is strictly a religious event. Sometimes in North America the church's traditions are lost or confused.
Cranston Herald. Archived from the original on 26 November By the early 20th century, Halloween, like Christmas, was commercialized. Pre-made costumes, decorations and special candy all became available.
The Christian origins of the holiday were downplayed. Leisure and entertainment in America. Retrieved 2 June Halloween, a holiday with religious origins but increasingly secularized as celebrated in America, came to assume major proportions as a children's festivity.
Poolbeg Press. The vigil of the feast is Halloween, the night when charms and incantations were powerful, when people looked into the future, and when feasting and merriment were ordained.
Up to recent time this was a day of abstinence, when according to church ruling no flesh meat was allowed. Colcannon, apple cake and barm brack, as well as apples and nuts were part of the festive fare.
Retrieved 13 August In Ireland, dishes based on potatoes and other vegetables were associated with Halloween, as meat was forbidden during the Catholic vigil and fast leading up to All Saint's Day.
Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 13 October The American Desk Encyclopedia. Oxford: Oxford Univ.
Scottish National Dictionary. Archived from the original on 29 April The Hallowed Eve: Dimensions of Culture in a Calendar Festival of Northern Ireland.
University Press of Kentucky, p. Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night , pp. New York: Oxford Univ. Retrieved 4 December Prentice Hall Press, The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain.
Oxford University Press, The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing, Ireland: An Oxford Archaeological Guide.
Infobase publishing. Infobase Publishing. Archived from the original on 23 April Retrieved 19 October They were both respected and feared.
The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs. The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries. Marian The Silver Bough, Volume 3. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Credo Reference. Christmas in Ritual and Tradition. Chapter 7: All Hallow Tide to Martinmas Archived 4 November at the Wayback Machine. In The Celtic Consciousness , ed.
Robert O'Driscoll. New York: Braziller, The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Chapter 63, Part 1: On the Fire-festivals in general Archived 12 October at the Wayback Machine.
The Religion of the Ancient Celts. Chapter Festivals Archived 12 October at the Wayback Machine. Welsh Government. Archived from the original on 2 October Retrieved 2 October Christian leaders made old Celtic and Roman customs into new Christian ones.
Bonfires were once lighted against evil spirits. Now, they kept away the devil. Hallowe'en: its origin, rites and ceremonies in the Scottish tradition.
Albyn Press, British Folk Customs. Hutchinson, Pagan Channel Islands: Europe's Hidden Heritage. Oral folk-tales of Wessex.
Rooted in America: Foodlore of Popular Fruits and Vegetables. Halloween is more Christian than Pagan — The Washington Post".
It is the medieval Christian festivals of All Saints' and All Souls' that provide our firmest foundation for Halloween.
From emphasizing dead souls both good and evil , to decorating skeletons, lighting candles for processions, building bonfires to ward off evil spirits, organizing community feasts, and even encouraging carnival practices like costumes, the medieval and early modern traditions of "Hallowtide" fit well with our modern holiday.
Lathrop , Fortress Press, p. Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 19 September Cambridge University Press.
Livingstone Oxford: Oxford University Press , , 41—42; The New Catholic Encyclopedia , eo. Chapter The Cult of the Dead Archived 29 October at the Wayback Machine.
Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 25 October Nicholas Magazine. And this custom became so favored in popular esteem that, for a long time, it was a regular observance in the country towns of England for small companies to go from parish to parish, begging soul-cakes by singing under the windows some such verse as this: 'Soul, souls, for a soul-cake; Pray you good mistress, a soul-cake!
A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face. Trick-or-treating began as souling an English and Irish tradition in which the poor, wearing masks, would go door to door and beg for soul cakes in exchange for people's dead relatives.
Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe. Quote: "Soul cakes were small cakes baked as food for the deceased or offered for the salvation of their souls.
They were therefore offered at funerals and feasts of the dead, laid on graves, or given to the poor as representatives of the dead.
The baking of these soul cakes is a universal practice". Cake: A Slice of History. Pegasus Books. Like the perennial favourites, hot cross buns; they were often marked with a cross to indicate that they were baked as alms.
Traditionalists, Muslims, and Christians in Africa: Interreligious Encounters and Dialogue. Cambria Press. Pelican Publishing Company.
Villagers were also encouraged to masquerade on this day, not to frighten unwelcome spirits, but to honor Christian saints. Poor churches could not afford genuine relics and instead had processions in which parishioners dressed as saints, angels and devils.
It served the new church by giving an acceptable Christian basis to the custom of dressing up on Halloween.
The Halloween Handbook. Kensington Publishing Corporation. Another contributor to the custom of dressing up at Halloween was the old Irish practice of marking All Hallows' Day with religious pageants that recounted biblical events.
These were common during the Middle Ages all across Europe. The featured players dressed as saints and angels, but there were also plenty of roles for demons who had more fun, capering, acting devilish, and playing to the crows.
The pageant began inside the church, then moved by procession to the churchyard, where it continued long into the night.
Halloween: An American Holiday, an American History. Pelican Publishing, Ghosts in Popular Culture and Legend.
Since the 16th century, costumes have become a central part of Halloween traditions. Perhaps the most common traditional Halloween costume is that of the ghost.
This is likely because The baking and sharing of souls cakes was introduced around the 15th century: in some cultures, the poor would go door to door to collect them in exchange for praying for the dead a practice called souling , often carrying lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips.
Around the 16th century, the practice of going house to house in disguise a practice called guising to ask for food began and was often accompanied by recitation of traditional verses a practice called mumming.
Wearing costumes, another tradition, has many possible explanations, such as it was done to confuse the spirits or souls who visited the earth or who rose from local graveyards to engage in what was called a Danse Macabre, basically a large party among the dead.
Rising from the Flames: The Experience of the Severely Burned. University of Pennsylvania Press. Halloween, incorporated into the Christian year as the eve of All Saints Day, marked the return of the souls of the departed and the release of devils who could move freely on that night.
Fires lit on that night served to prevent the influence of such spirits and to provide omens for the future.
Modern children go from house to house at Halloween with flashlights powered by electric batteries, while jack o'lanterns perhaps with an actual candle, but often with a lightbulb glow from windows and porches.
And even then, the educated folk of the districts concerned, declared that these fires were a relic of papistical days when they were lit at night to guide the poor souls back to earth.
The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 7, c. Christianity Today. Sometimes enacted as at village pageants, the danse macabre was also performed as court masques, the courtiers dressing up as corpses from various strata of society Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo.
On the other hand the postmodern phenomenon of "antifashion" is also to be found in some Halloween costumes. Black and orange are a 'must' with many costumes.
Halloween — like the medieval danse macabre — is closely connected with superstitions and it might be a way of dealing with death in a playful way.
Gorham, p. Christian Origins of Halloween. Rose Publishing. In Protestant regions souling remained an important occasion for soliciting food and money from rich neighbors in preparation for the coming cold and dark months.
Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Fires were indeed lit in England on All Saints' Day, notably in Lancashire, and may well ultimately have descended from the same rites, but were essentially party of a Christian ceremony Each did so on a hill near its homestead, one person holding a large bunch of burning straw on the end of a fork.
The rest in a circle around and prayed for the souls of relatives and friends until the flames burned out. The author who recorded this custom added that it gradually died out in the latter part of the century, but that before it had been very common and at nearby Whittingham such fires could be seen all around the horizon at Hallowe'en.
He went on to say that the name 'Purgatory Field', found across northern Lancashire, testified to an even wider distribution and that the rite itself was called 'Teen'lay'.
Halloween in a Globalising World". Gunnell and Co. Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night , p. The Halloween Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 27 July Frank Leslie's popular monthly, Volume 40, November , pp.
Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 23 October Why, it will gleam through the holes, and make thee look like a jack-o'-lantern!
Schakel , Bucknell University Press, p. New York: Oxford University Press. Burns: A Study of the Poems and Songs.
Retrieved 27 November Artworks for Elementary Teachers: Developing Artistic and Perceptual Awareness. Legends and Lore of South Carolina. The History Press.
The practice of dressing up and going door to door for treats dates back to the middle ages and the practice of souling.
Halloween Delights. Whispering Pine Press International. The tradition continued in some areas of northern England as late as the s, with children going from door to door "souling" for cakes or money by singing a song.
The Irish Times. The expression trick or treat has only been used at front doors for the last 10 to 15 years.
Before that "Help the Halloween Party" seems to have been the most popular phrase to holler. Collins English Dictionary.
The Book of Hallowe'en , Boston: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard Co. Archived from the original on 14 October Wright, "A Halloween Story", St.
Nicholas , October , p. Mae McGuire Telford, "What Shall We Do Halloween? The Chicago Tribune also mentioned door-to-door begging in Aurora, Illinois on Halloween in , although not by the term 'trick-or-treating'.
The Guardian. The Morning Oregonian. Quote: "Trick or treat? UNICEF Canada. Archived from the original on 4 June Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 14 November Good Housekeeping.
Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 16 October Fox News. Archived from the original on 22 October Retrieved 17 October Medieval Celebrations: Your Guide to Planning and Hosting Spectacular Feasts, Parties, Weddings, and Renaissance Fairs.
Stackpole Books. All Hallows' Eve. A time of spiritual unrest, when the souls of the dead, along with ghosts and evil spirits, were believed to walk the land.
Church bells were run and fires lit to guide these souls on their way and deflect them from haunting honest Christian folk. Barns and homes were blessed to protect people and livestock from the effects of witches, who were believed to accompany the malignant spirits as they traveld the earth.
Although a rare few continued to divine the future, cast spells, and tell ghost stories in rural communities, woe to anyone who was denounced to the church for engaging in such activities.
These may seem like innocent fun today, but it was deadly serious stuff during the Middle Ages. Celtic Myth and Religion.
McFarland, Mercier Press, Marian , The Silver Bough , Volume III. Parlor Games for the Wise and Otherwise.
Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 8 December Vintage Holiday Crafts.
Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 28 October Irish Examiner.